by Rohit 29. March 2014 23:30



  1. CONST keyword is used to represent a CONSTANT. It is defined at compile-time and cannot be changed at run-time.
  2. Constants are declared as a field and the value must be initialized as they are declared:


Public const decimal BonusPercent = 5.25;



 BonusPercent cannot change in the application and any attempt to change the value raises compiler error.


  1. Constants can only be defined as primitive value types like int, double, float etc. Reference types such as a class or a structure cannot be set as Constant.
  2. Constants are by default static in nature, hence you cannot use static keyword with a constant.
  3. Access modifiers like public, private, protected, internal or protected internal can be used with constants.


When to use Constants?


 Use the const when you are sure that the field value will not be changed throughout the application.




A readonly, like a constant, represents a value that cannot be changed. However, the difference is that readonly is initialized at run-time. It can be initialized within a non-static constructor or can be initialized as they are declared.


In the below code I am trying to initialize the value within a static method:



You can see above that it is giving an error. Now, as I said before, let us try to initialize it within the default non-static constructor:



  1. Like constant, readonly is not static by default. You can specify static keyword with readonly.
  2. You can apply readonly to a value-type as well as reference-type.
  3. Once the value is assigned to a readonly at run-time, it cannot be changed again.


When to use readonly?


If the initial value is to be assigned at run-time based on some parameters and conditions, you can make use of readonly. Once the value is assigned at run-time, it cannot be changed further throughout the program.


An example of instance-level initialization:


public static readonly Bonus QuarterlyBonus = new Bonus(6.25);



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.NET | C#

Resolving "Specified cast is not valid" error while seeking a row from DataTable.

by Rohit 22. December 2013 19:24

In a situation I had to create a Data Table manually and add columns and rows to it. Later I wanted to search for a row in this Data Table using LINQ. As soon as LINQ code was fired I got this error: "Specified cast is not valid". Below I am sharing a sample code to simulate this problem and will tell you how to get rid of this error in this particular situation I mentioned above.

Sample Code:

public partial class _Default : System.Web.UI.Page
        DataTable dt = new DataTable();

        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)


            DataRow row = dt.NewRow();
            row[0] = 1;
            row[1] = 2000;



        protected void GetRecord(int RowId)
            var results = from row in dt.AsEnumerable()
            where row.Field<int>("RowId") == RowId
            select row;

            string FetchedRowId = results.ToArray()[0].ToString();

If you execute this code, you will get this error:

The root of this error lies during the creation of columns for the Data Table. Do you notice these lines:


Here if you don't specify the Type of column, the default type considered is 'string'. Mentioning the default type of each column solves this issue:

dt.Columns.Add("RowId", typeof(int));
dt.Columns.Add("Amount", typeof(int));

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Visual Studio 2013 (First Look): One ASP.NET and BootStrap

by Rohit 15. December 2013 14:43

With the release of Visual Studio 2013 comes more improvements to make life of developers even more easier.  The release of Visual Studio 2013 came as a surprise though. Few weeks back I downloaded Visual Studio 2012 Express and was excited to start a new MVC application on it. I wanted to submit feedback and some valid reasons to migrate old projects to Visual Studio 2012 to my team in office. My feedback document now requires a revision with the release of 2013. No doubt, the changes looks exciting.


 Not only me but most developers wanted to use both MVC and Web Forms together in few situations. One ASP.NET is a move towards this. Visual Studio 2013 provides this option when you create a new Web Forms application.



If you select MVC in [Add folders and core references for:], Visual Studio 2013 creates a new project which includes MVC folders and default Web Forms as shown below: More...

About Rohit Prakash

Software Craftsman @ Fortune 100 Company. Technical Reviewer of few programming books.

A Single, Writer, Reader and Adventurist.

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rohit [at]

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